Diphio

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Liphio ke litho tse peli tse bōpehileng joaloka linaoa tse fumanoang ho lesapo la mokokotlo. Li fumaneha ka ho le letšehali le ka ho le letona sebakeng sa retroperitoneal, 'me bathong ba baholo ba bolelele ba lisenthimithara tse 12 (4 1⁄2 inches). Ba fumana mali ho tsoa methapong ea liphio e kopantsoeng; mali a tsoa ka methapong ea liphio e kopaneng. Phio e 'ngoe le e' ngoe e khomaretse ureter, e leng mothapo o tsamaisang moroto o ntšitsoeng ka har'a senya.

Nephron ke karolo ea liphio le e sebetsang. Philo e 'ngoe le e' ngoe ea motho e moholo e na le li-nephrone tse ka bang milone e le 'ngoe, ha liphio tsa toeba li na le li-nephron tse ka bang 12,500 feela. Liphio li nka karolo taolong ea molumo oa maro a fapa-fapaneng a 'mele, osmolality ea mokelikeli, acid-base balance, likhakanyo tse fapaneng tsa electrolyte le ho tlosoa ha chefo. Filtration e hlaha ho glomerulus: karolo ea bohlano ea bophahamo ba mali e kenang liphio e tlhotliloeng. Mehlala ea lintho tse khutlisitsoeng bocha ke metsi a se nang solute, sodium, bicarbonate, glucose le amino acid. Mehlala ea lintho tse patiloeng ke hydrogen, ammonium, potasiamo le uric acid. Liphio li boetse li etsa mesebetsi e ikemetseng ntle le nephron. Mohlala, li fetola selelekela sa vithamine D ho sebopeho sa eona se sebetsang, calcitriol; le synthesize li-hormone erythropoietin le renin.

Renal physiology ke thuto ea liphio. Nephrology ke tsebo e khethehileng ea bongaka e sebetsanang le mafu a liphio: ana a kenyelletsa lefu le sa foleng la liphio, nephritic le nephrotic syndromes, kotsi e mpe ea liphio le pyelonephritis. Urology e sebetsana le mafu a liphio (le pampitšana ea ho ntša metsi): tsena li kenyelletsa mofets'e, li-cyst tsa renal, majoe a liphio le majoe a ureteral, le tšitiso ea mosese.

Mekhoa e sebelisoang taolong ea lefu la liphio e kenyelletsa tlhahlobo ea lik'hemik'hale le tse nyane haholo tsa moroto (urinalysis), tekanyo ea ts'ebetso ea liphio ka ho lekanya sekhahla se hakantsoeng sa glomerular filtration (eGFR) se sebelisa serum creatinine; le biopsy le CT scan ho lekola bakeng sa anatomy e sa tloaelehang. Dialysis le ho fetisetsa liphio li sebelisoa ho phekola ho hloleha ha liphio; e le 'ngoe (kapa ka bobeli ka tatellano ea tsona) e sebelisoa khafetsa ha ts'ebetso ea renal e theohela ka tlase ho 15%. Nephrectomy e sebelisoa khafetsa ho folisa renal cell carcinoma.