Hepatitis B

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Hepatitis B (HB) ke lefu le tshwaetsanwang le bakwang ke vaerase ya hepatitis B (HBV) e amang sebete. E ka baka tshwaetso e mpe le e sa foleng. Batho ba bangata ha ba be le matshwao nakong ya ha tshwaetso e sa qala. Ba bang ba kula kapele ka ho hlatsa, ho ba le letlalo le lesehla, mokgathala, moroto o lefifi le bohloko ba ka mpeng.[1] Kgafetsa matshwao ana a nka dibeke tse mmalwa mme hase hangata matshwao a qalang a bolayang.[1][2] Ho ka nka matsatsi a 30 ho isa ho a 180 pele matshwao a qala.[1] Ba tshwaetswang ha ba sa tswa hlaha ba etsang 90% ba ba le Hepatitis B e sa foleng ha ba etsang ka tlaase ho 10% ya ba tshwaetswang ka mora ho ba le dilemo tse hlano e ba tshwara.[3] Boholo ba ba nang le bolwetse bo sa foleng ha ba na matshwao; leha ho le jwalo, ba ka nna ba ba le cirrhosis le kankere ya sebete.[4] Mathata ana a fella ka ho bolaya batho ba etsang 15 ho ya ho 25% ya ba nang le malwetse a sa foleng.[1]

Vaerase e fetiswa ka ho tshwara madi kapa maro a mmele a tshwaeditsweng. Ho tshwaetswa nakong ya tswalo kapa ka hore ngwana a tshware motho ya tshwaeditsweng ke mokgwa o tlwaelehileng haholo wa ho fumana hepatitis B dibakeng tseo bolwetse bona bo tlwaelehileng ho tsona. Dibakeng tseo bolwetse bona bo sa tlwaelehang, bo kena haholo ka dithethefatsi tse kenang mmeleng kapa thobalano.[1] Dintho tse ding tse ka behang motho kotsing ke ho sebetsa tlhokomelong ya bakudi, ho tshelwa madi, dialysis, ho dula le motho ya nang le tshwaetso, ho ya dinaheng tseo tshwaetso e leng hodimo leho dula sebakeng se dulang batho ba bangata ba hlokomelwang.[1][3] Ho etsa tattoo le ho hlaba ka dinalete ho lebisitse ho palo e kgolo ya batho ba tshwaetswang ka bo 1980; leha ho le jwalo, sena se ile sa fokotseha ha disebediswa di hlwekiswa hore di bolawe dikokwanahloko.[5] Dikokwanahloko tsa hepatitis B di ke ke tsa fetiswa ka ho tshwarana ka matsoho, ho arolelana disebediswa tsa ho ja, ho suna, ho haka, ho kgohlela, ho thimola kapa ho nyantsha.[3] Tshwaetso e ka hlokomeleha ka mora matsatsi a 30 ho isa ho a 60 ka mora ho pepesetswa tshwaetso. Hangata tshwaetso e ka bonahana ka hore ho etswe diteko tsa madi bakeng sa dikarolo tsa vaerase le di-antibodies kgahlanong le vaerase.[1] Ke e nngwe ya divaerase tse hlano tse tsebahalang tsa hepatitis: A, B, C, D, le E.

Haesale tshwaetso e thibelwa ka ente ho tloha ka 1982.[1][6] Ho entwa ho kgothalletswa ke Mokgatlo wa Lefatshe wa Bophelo ka letsatsi la pele la bophelo haeba ho kgoneha. Ho hlokahala ditekanyetso tse pedi kapa tse tharo hamorao bakeng sa tshebetso e feletseng. Ente ena e sebetsa hoo e ka bang nako e etsang 95%.[1] Dinaha tse ka bang 180 di ile tsa fana ka ente ena e le karolo ya mananeo a naha ho tloha ka 2006.[7] Ho khothalletswa hape hore madi ohle a hlahlojwe hepatitis B pele a tshelwa mothong le hore ho sebediswe di-condom ho thibela tshwaetso. Ho batho ba nang le bolwetse bo sa foleng, meriana ya di-antiviral e kang tenofovir kapa interferon e ka ba molemo; leha ho le jwalo, meriana ena e ya tura. Ho fuwa sebete ka dinako tse ding ho a sebediswa bakeng sa cirrhosis.[1]

Hoo e ka bang karolo ya boraro ya baahi ba lefatshe ba kile ba tshwetswa ka nako e nngwe ya bophelo ba bona, ho akareletsa ba dimilione tse 240 ho isa ho tse 350 ba nang le tshwaetso e sa foleng.[1][8] Batho ba fetang 750,000 ba bolawa ke hepatitis B selemo se seng le se seng.[1] Bolwetse bona bo se bo atile Asia Bochabela le Afrika e ka borwa ho Sahara moo batho ba baholo ba pakeng tsa 5 le 10% ba nang le tshwaetso e sa foleng. Dipalopalo tsa Europe le Amerika Leboya di ka tlase ho 1%.[1] Pele e ne e tsejwa e le "serum hepatitis".[9] Patlisiso e batla ho theha dijo tse nang le ente ea HBV.[10] Bolwetse bona bo ka tshwara le ditshwene tse ding tse kgolo.[11]Template:Infobox medical condition (new)

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 "Hepatitis B Fact sheet N°204". who.int. July 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  2. Raphael Rubin; David S. Strayer (2008). Rubin's Pathology : clinicopathologic foundations of medicine ; [includes access to online text, cases, images, and audio review questions!] (5th ed.). Philadelphia [u.a.]: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 638. ISBN 9780781795166.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public — Transmission". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved 2011-11-29.
  4. Chang MH (June 2007). "Hepatitis B virus infection". Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 12 (3): 160–167. doi:10.1016/j.siny.2007.01.013. PMID 17336170.
  5. Thomas HC (2013). Viral Hepatitis (4th ed.). Hoboken: Wiley. p. 83. ISBN 9781118637302.
  6. Pungpapong S, Kim WR, Poterucha JJ (2007). "Natural History of Hepatitis B Virus Infection: an Update for Clinicians". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 82 (8): 967–975. doi:10.4065/82.8.967. PMID 17673066.
  7. Williams R (2006). "Global challenges in liver disease". Hepatology. 44 (3): 521–526. doi:10.1002/hep.21347. PMID 16941687.
  8. Schilsky ML (2013). "Hepatitis B "360"". Transplantation Proceedings. 45 (3): 982–985. doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2013.02.099. PMID 23622604.
  9. Barker LF, Shulman NR, Murray R, Hirschman RJ, Ratner F, Diefenbach WC, Geller HM (1996). "Transmission of serum hepatitis. 1970". Journal of the American Medical Association. 276 (10): 841–844. doi:10.1001/jama.276.10.841. PMID 8769597.
  10. Thomas, Bruce (2002). Production of Therapeutic Proteins in Plants. p. 4. ISBN 9781601072542. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  11. Plotkin, [edited by] Stanley A.; Orenstein,, Walter A.; Offit, Paul A. (2013). Vaccines (6th. ed.). [Edinburgh]: Elsevier/Saunders. p. 208. ISBN 9781455700905.