Ho bolotsa basadi

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Template:Infobox Ho retla mapele a basadi(FGM), hape ho tsejwang e le ho seha mapele a basadi le ho bolotsa basadi, e hlaloswa ke Mokgatlo wa Lefatshe wa Bophelo bo Botle(World Health Organisation)[1] FGM e etswa jwalo ka moetlo ke sehlopha sa morabe dinaheng tse 27 tse tlase ho lehwatata la Sahara le Leboya Botjhabela ba Afrika[2] Dilemo tseo ho etswang hona ka hona di a fapafapana ho tloha matsatsi a se makae ka mora tlhaho ho isa bokgarebeng; halofong ya dinaha tseo dipalo tsa naha di fumanehang ho tsona, boholo ba banana bo sehwa pele ba ba dilemo tse hlano.[3]

Tshebetso e kenyeletsa mokgwa o le mong kapa e mmalwa, e ka fapanang ho ya ka sehlopha sa morabe. Di kenyeletsa ho tloswa ha karolo kapa lelebe lohle le clitoral hood; tloswa ha karolo kapa lelebe lohle le karolo e ka hara ya malebe ke mokgwa o mahlonoko haholo infibulation karolo tsohle kapa karolo e le nngwe e kahare ya bokantle ba labia Mokgwatshebetsong ona wa ho qetela, oo WHO e o bitsang Type III[4] Ditlamorao tsa bophelo di itshetlehile hodima mokgwatshebetso empa di kenyeletsa ditshwaetso tse iphetaphetang, mahlaba a nako e telele, dihlala, le ho hloleha ho ima, mathata nakong ya ho beleha le ho tswa madi ho ka bakang lefu.[5]

Tlwaelo ena e fumanwa moo ho se nang tekatekano ya bong, diteko tsa ho laola semelo sa mosadi sa ketso ya thobalano, mehopolo ya bohlweki, boikokobetso le tjhebahalo. Ka tlwaelo e qalwa ke basadi le ho etswa ke basadi, ba e bonang e le mohlodi wa tlhompho, mme ba tshabang hore ka ho hloleha hore baradi le ditloholo tsa bona tsa banana di bolotswe e tla pepesetsa banana ho qhelelwa thoko setjhabeng[6] Ho fetang dimilione tse 130 tsa basadi le banana ba se ba ile ba bolotswa (pepesetswa FGM) dinaheng tse 29 moo e jeleng setsi.[7] Ho fetang dimilione tse robedi ba kwetswe bosadi, tlwaelo e fumanwang haholo Djibouti, Eritrea, Somalia le Sudan.[8]

FGM e nkuwa e se molaong kapa e thibetswe dinaheng tse ngata moo e etswang teng, empa melao e kenngwa tshebetsong ka bofokodi.[9] Ho bile le matsapa a matjhaba ho tloha dilemong tsa bo1970 ho kgodisa batho hore ba e nyahlatse, mme ka 2012 Seboka se Akaretsang sa Matjhaba a Kopaneng[10] Kganyetso e bile le ba sa dumellaneng le yona, haholoholo hara baithuti ba ditjhaba le setso (anthropologist). Eric Silvermano o ngola hore FGM e se e le e nngwe ya sehlooho sa baithuti ba ditjhaba le setso se seholo sa boitswaro bo botle, se nang le dipotso tse boima ho ka arajwa mabapi le boitshwaro bo nepahetseng ditabeng tsa setso bo dumelwang ke sehlopha se amehang.[11]

Ditshupu[edit | edit source]

  1. "Classification of female genital mutilation", World Health Organization, 2013 (hereafter WHO 2013).
  2. UNICEF 2013, p. 2
  3. UNICEF 2013, pp. 47, 50, 183.
  4. WHO 2013; WHO 2008, p. 4
  5. Abdulcadira, Jasmine; Margairaz, C.; Boulvain, M; Irion, O. "Care of women with female genital mutilation/cutting", Swiss Medical Weekly, 6(14), January 2011 (review).
  6. UNICEF 2013, p. 15: "There is a social obligation to conform to the practice and a widespread belief that if they [families] do not, they are likely to pay a price that could include social exclusion, criticism, ridicule, stigma or the inability to find their daughters suitable marriage partners."

    Nahid F. Toubia, Eiman Hussein Sharief, "Female genital mutilation: have we made progress?", International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 82(3), September 2003, pp. 251–261: "One of the great achievements of the past decade in the field of FGM is the shift in emphasis from the concern over the harmful physical effects it causes to understanding this act as a social phenomenon resulting from a gender definition of women's roles, in particular their sexual and reproductive roles. This shift in emphasis has helped redefine the issues from a clinical disease model (hence the terminology of eradication prevalent in the literature) to a problem resulting from the use of culture to protect social dominance over women's bodies by the patriarchal hierarchy. Understanding the operative mechanisms of patriarchal dominance must also include understanding how women, particularly older married women, are important keepers of that social hegemony." Template:PMID Template:Doi

  7. Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: What Might the Future Hold?, New York: UNICEF, 22 July 2014 (hereafter UNICEF 2014), p. 3/6: "If nothing is done, the number of girls and women affected will grow from 133 million today to 325 million in 2050." Also see p. 6/6:

    "Data sources: UNICEF global databases, 2014, based on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and other nationally representative surveys, 1997–2013. Population data are from: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2012 revision, CD-ROM edition, United Nations, New York, 2013.

    "Notes: Data presented in this brochure cover the 29 countries in Africa and the Middle East where FGM/C is concentrated and for which nationally representative data are available."

  8. P. Stanley Yoder, Shane Khan, "Numbers of women circumcised in Africa: The Production of a Total", USAID, DHS Working Papers, No. 39, March 2008, pp. 13–14: "Infibulation is practiced largely in countries located in northeastern Africa: Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan. Survey data are available for Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Djibouti. Sudan alone accounts for about 3.5 million of the women. ... [T]he estimate of the total number of women infibulated in [Djibouti, Somalia, Eritrea, northern Sudan, Ethiopia, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, Senegal, Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon and Tanzania, for women 15–49 years old] comes to 8,245,449, or just over eight million women." Also see Appendix B, Table 2 ("Types of FGC"), p. 19.

    UNICEF 2013, p. 182, identifies "sewn closed" as most common in Djibouti, Eritrea, Somalia for the 15–49 age group (a survey in 2000 in Sudan was not included in the figures), and for the daughters of that age group it is most common in Djibouti, Eritrea, Niger and Somalia. See UNICEF statistical profiles: Djibouti (December 2013), Eritrea (July 2014), Somalia (December 2013).

    Also see Gerry Mackie, "Ending Footbinding and Infibulation: A Convention Account", American Sociological Review, 61(6), December 1996 (pp. 999–1017), p. 1002: "Infibulation, the harshest practice, occurs contiguously in Egyptian Nubia, the Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti and Somalia, also known as Islamic Northeast Africa."

  9. For countries in which it is outlawed or restricted, UNICEF 2013, p. 8; for enforcement, UNFPA–UNICEF 2012, p. 48.
  10. "67/146. Intensifying global efforts for the elimination of female genital mutilation", United Nations General Assembly, adopted 20 December 2012.

    Emma Bonino, "Banning Female Genital Mutilation", The New York Times, 19 December 2012.

  11. Eric K. Silverman, "Anthropology and Circumcision", Annual Review of Anthropology, 33, 2004 (pp. 419–445), pp. 420, 427.