Ho ntsha mpa ho entsweng ka maikemisetso

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Ho ntsha mpa ho entsweng ka maikemisetso
Tlhophiso le mehlaodi ya kantle
Abortion laws globally[1] Template:Leftlegend Template:Leftlegend Template:Leftlegend Template:Leftlegend Template:Leftlegend Template:Leftlegend Template:Leftlegend Template:Leftlegend
Abortion laws globally[1]

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ICD/CIM-10O04 O04
ICD/CIM-9779.6 779.6
DiseasesDB4153
MedlinePlus002912

Ho nthsa mpake ho fedisa ha boimanaka ho ntsha kapa ho qobella ho tshwa popelongpopelong ha ngwanakapasekangwanapele a kgona e ho iphidisa ka boyena. Ho ntsha mpa ho ka etsahala ka bobona, maemong a jwalo hangata ho bitswa ho senyehelwa. Hape ho kanna ha etswa ka sepheo mme maemong a jwalo ho bitswa ho tsha mpa ho entsweng ka maikemisetso. Lentsweho ntsha mpaka tlwaelo le supa ho ntshwa ha mpa ho entsweng ho fedisa boimana bathong. Mokgwatshebetso o tshwanang ka mora hore ngwana ya so hlahe a ne a ka kgona ho iphedisa ka boyena ka tshebetso ya bongaka ho tsejwa e le “ho ntsha mpa ho diehisitsweng”.[2]

Morina wa sejwalejwale o sebedisa meriana kapa mekgwa ya opariwshene ho ntsha mpa. Meriana e mmedimifepristonele prostaglandine sebetsa hantle jwalo ka mokgwa wa opareishenekgweditharong ya pele ya boimana.[3][4] Leha tshebediso ya meriana e ka sebetsa hantle nakong ya kgweditharong ya bobedi ya boimana,[5]mekgwa ya oporeishene e bonahala e na le ditlamorao tse kotsi e tlase.[4] Taolo ya pelehi, ho kenyeledtswepidisile sethibelaphelehi se ka popelong e ka qalwa kapele ka mora ho ntsha mpa.[4] Ho ntshwa mpa dinaheng tse tswetseng peleho na le nalane e telele ya ho ba hara mekgwatshebetso ya meriana e bolokehilenghaeba e dumeletse ke molao wa naha.[6][7] Ho ntsha mpa ho sa raranang ha ho bake bophelo bo botle ba kelello kapa mathata mmeleng a nako e telele.[8] Mokgatlo wa Lefatshe wa Bopheloo kgothaletsa boemo bo tshwanang ba polokeho le ho ntsha mpa ho molaong ho fumanehe ho basadi bohle lefatshe ka bophara.[9] Ho ntsha mpa ho sa bolokehang, leha ho le jwalo, ho qetella ho bakile ho isa ho ho ka isang ho mafu a 47,000 a bomme[8]le ho amohelwa ha ba dimilione tse 5 sepetlele ka selemo lefatshe ka bophara.[10]

Ho akanywa hore ho ntsha mpa ha dimilione tse 44 ho etsahala lefatshe ka bophara selemoo se seng le se seng, mme le ho ka tlase ho halofo ya hoo ho etswa ntle le polokeho.[11] Dikgahla tsa ho ntsha mpa di fetohile hannyane mahareng a 2003 le 2008,[11] ka mora hore ho qetwe dilemo tse mashomeshome tsa phumantsho ya thuto e mabapi lethero ya malapa le taolo ya pelehi e ntlafetse.[12] Template:As ofDiphesente tse tse mashome a mane tsa basadi lefatsheng ba bile le phumantsho ya ho ntsha mpa ho molaong “ntle le ho thibelwa ke mabaka”.[13] Leha ho le jwalo, ho na le, meedi e mabapi le bolelele ba boimana ho ntshwa mpa ho ka etswang ka teng.[13]

Ho ntsha mpa ho etswang ho na le nalene . Ho entswe ka mekgwa e fapaneng, ho kenyeletswaya methokgo, tshebediso ya disebediswa tse loeditsweng kotsi mmeleng, le e meng mekgwa ya setsoho tloha dinakong tsa boholoholo.[14] Molao wamelao e mabapi le ho ntsha mpa,le kgafetsa ka moo ho ka etswang ka teng, le boemo ba teng ba setso le bodumedi ho fapane haholo ho potoloha le lefatshe. Mabakeng a itseng, a ho ntsha mpa ho molaong ho itshetlehilwe maemong a ikgethang, jwalo ka thobalano ya batho ba amanang ka madi, petomathata ka ngwana ya so hlahe, maemo a phedisano le moruo kapa kotsi bophelong ba mmangwana.[15] Dikarolong tse ngata tsa lefatshe ho na le ho fapafapana ha maikutlo a setjhabaho hodima boitshwaro bo botle,boitshwaro, le dintlha tsa molao tse amanang le ho ntsha mpa. Batho ba e kgahlano le ho ntsha mpaka kakaretso ba bolela hore popeho ya ngwana kapa ngwana ya so hlahe ke motho ya nang letokelo ya ho phelamme ba kanna ba bapisa ho ntsha map le polao.[16][17] Ba tshehetsang ditokelo tsa ho ntsha mpaba hatellatokelo ya mosadi ho nka qeto ditabeng tse amang le mmele wa hae[18]mmoho le ho hatella ditokelo tsa bothoka kakaretso.[9]

Ditshupu[edit | edit source]

  1. "World Abortion Policies 2013". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  2. Grimes, DA; Stuart, G (2010). "Abortion jabberwocky: the need for better terminology". Contraception 81 (2): 93–6. PMID 20103443. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2009.09.005. 
  3. Kulier, R; Kapp, N; Gülmezoglu, AM; Hofmeyr, GJ; Cheng, L; Campana, A (Nov 9, 2011). "Medical methods for first trimester abortion.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (11): CD002855. PMID 22071804. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002855.pub4. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Kapp, N; Whyte, P; Tang, J; Jackson, E; Brahmi, D (Sep 2013). "A review of evidence for safe abortion care.". Contraception 88 (3): 350–63. PMID 23261233. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2012.10.027. 
  5. Wildschut, H; Both, MI; Medema, S; Thomee, E; Wildhagen, MF; Kapp, N (Jan 19, 2011). "Medical methods for mid-trimester termination of pregnancy.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (1): CD005216. PMID 21249669. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005216.pub2. 
  6. Grimes, D. A.; Benson, J.; Singh, S.; Romero, M.; Ganatra, B.; Okonofua, F. E.; Shah, I. H. (2006). "Unsafe abortion: The preventable pandemic" (PDF). The Lancet 368 (9550): 1908–1919. PMID 17126724. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69481-6. 
  7. Raymond, EG; Grossman, D; Weaver, MA; Toti, S; Winikoff, B (Nov 2014). "Mortality of induced abortion, other outpatient surgical procedures and common activities in the United States.". Contraception 90 (5): 476–479. PMID 25152259. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2014.07.012. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Lohr, P. A.; Fjerstad, M.; Desilva, U.; Lyus, R. (2014). "Abortion". BMJ 348: f7553. doi:10.1136/bmj.f7553. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Organization, World Health (2012). Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems (2nd ed. ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization. p. 8. ISBN 9789241548434. 
  10. Shah, I.; Ahman, E. (December 2009). "Unsafe abortion: global and regional incidence, trends, consequences, and challenges" (PDF). Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada 31 (12): 1149–58. PMID 20085681. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 Sedgh, G.; Singh, S.; Shah, I. H.; Åhman, E.; Henshaw, S. K.; Bankole, A. (2012). "Induced abortion: Incidence and trends worldwide from 1995 to 2008" (PDF). The Lancet 379 (9816): 625–632. PMID 22264435. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61786-8. 
  12. Sedgh G, Henshaw SK, Singh S, Bankole A, Drescher J (September 2007). "Legal abortion worldwide: incidence and recent trends". Int Fam Plan Perspect 33 (3): 106–116. PMID 17938093. doi:10.1363/ifpp.33.106.07. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Culwell KR, Vekemans M, de Silva U, Hurwitz M (July 2010). "Critical gaps in universal access to reproductive health: Contraception and prevention of unsafe abortion". International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 110: S13–16. PMID 20451196. doi:10.1016/j.ijgo.2010.04.003. 
  14. Joffe, Carole (2009). "1. Abortion and medicine: A sociopolitical history" (PDF). In MPaul, ES Lichtenberg, L Borgatta, DA Grimes, PG Stubblefield, MD Creinin. Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancy (1st ed.). Oxford, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-4443-1293-5. Archived from the original on 21 October 2011. 
  15. Boland, R.; Katzive, L. (2008). "Developments in Laws on Induced Abortion: 1998–2007". International Family Planning Perspectives 34 (3): 110–120. PMID 18957353. doi:10.1363/ifpp.34.110.08. 
  16. Pastor Mark Driscoll (18 October 2013). "What do 55 million people have in common?". Fox News. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  17. Dale Hansen (18 March 2014). "Abortion: Murder, or Medical Procedure?". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  18. Sifris, Ronli Noa (2013). Reproductive Freedom, Torture and International Human Rights Challenging the Masculinisation of Torture.. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. p. 3. ISBN 9781135115227.