Leishmaniasis

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Leishmaniasis
Tlhophiso le mehlaodi ya kantle
Cutaneous leishmaniasis e letsohong la motho e moholowa Amerika Bohareng
Cutaneous leishmaniasis e letsohong la motho e moholowa Amerika Bohareng
ICD/CIM-10B55 B55
ICD/CIM-9085 085
DiseasesDB3266
MedlinePlus001386

Leishemaniasis, hape e peletwa e le leishmaniosis, ke bolwetse bo bakwang ke dinwamadi sa protozoa ya genus "Leishmania" mme di hasanngwa ke ho longwa ke mofuta o mong wa dintsintsi tsa lehlabathe.[1] Bolwetse bona bo bonahala ka ditsela tse tharo tse kgolo: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, kapa visceral leishmaniasis.[1] Mofuta wa cutaneous o bonahala ka diso (dialsa) tsa letlalo, ha mofuta wa mucocutaneous o bonahala ka diso tsa letlalo, molomo, le nko, mme mofuta wa visceral o qala ka diso tsa letlalo mme ebe hamorao o bonahala ka feberu, phokotseho ya disele tse kgubedu tsa madi, le ho atoloha ha lebete le sebete.[1][2]

Ditshwaetso bathong di bakwa ke mefuta e fetang e 20 ya "Leishmania".[1] Disosa tsa kotsi di kenyeleditse bofuma, phepompe, phokotseho ya meru, le phallelo ditoropong.[1] Mefuta ena e meraro e ka hlahlojwa ka ho bona dinwamadi ka maekroskoupu.[1] Ho feta moo, bolwetse ba visceral bo ka hlahlojwa ka diteko tsa madi.[2]

Leishmmaniasis e ka thibelwa hannyane ka ho robala tlasa dinete tse fafaditsweng ka sebolayadikokonyana.[1] Mehato e meng e kenyeletsa ho nyanyatsa sebolayadikokonyana ho bolaya dintsintsi tsa lehlabathe le ho alafa batho ba nang le tshwaetso esale pele ho thibela ho ata ha bona.[1] Qeto e nkuwang ya kalafo e hlokahalang e laolwa ke hore tshwaetso ya bolwetse e fumanwe ho kae, mefuta ya "Leishmania", le mofuta wa tshwaetso.[1] Meriana e itseng e kannang ya sebediswa bakeng sa bolwetse ba visceral e kenyeletsa liposomal amphotericin B,[3] motswako wa pentavalent antimonialsleparomomycin,[3] le miltefosine.[4] Bakeng sa bolwetse ba cutaneous, paromomycin, fluconazole, kapa pentamidine e kanna ya ba le tshebetso e ntle.[5]

Batho ba ka bang dimilione tse 12 mothating wa jwale ba na le tshwaetso[6] dinaheng tse ka bang 98.[2] Ditlaleho tse ntjha tse ka bang dimilione tse 2[2] le mafu a mahareng a dikete tse 20 le tse 50 a etsahala selemo se seng le se seng.[1][7] Batho ba ka bang dimilione tse 200 Asia, Afrika, Amerika Borwa le Amerika Bohareng, le Yuropa e ka borwa ba dula dibakeng tseo bolwetse bo tlalehilweng.[2][8] Mokgatlo wa Lefatshe wa Bophelo bo Botle (World Health Organisation) o fumane theolelo ya emeng ya meriana ya ho alafa bolwetse.[2] Bolwetse bo kanna ba hlaha palong e itseng ya diphoofolo tse ding, ho kenyeleditswe dintja le diroto.[1]

Ditshupu[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 "Leishmaniasis Fact sheet N°375". World Health Organization. January 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Barrett, MP; Croft, SL (2012). "Management of trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis.". British medical bulletin 104: 175–96. PMC 3530408. PMID 23137768. doi:10.1093/bmb/lds031. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Sundar, S; Chakravarty, J (Jan 2013). "Leishmaniasis: an update of current pharmacotherapy.". Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy 14 (1): 53–63. PMID 23256501. doi:10.1517/14656566.2013.755515. 
  4. Dorlo, TP; Balasegaram, M; Beijnen, JH; de Vries, PJ (Nov 2012). "Miltefosine: a review of its pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of leishmaniasis.". The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy 67 (11): 2576–97. PMID 22833634. doi:10.1093/jac/dks275. 
  5. Minodier, P; Parola, P (May 2007). "Cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment.". Travel medicine and infectious disease 5 (3): 150–8. PMID 17448941. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2006.09.004. 
  6. "Leishmaniasis Magnitude of the problem". World Health Organization. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  7. Lozano, R (Dec 15, 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.". Lancet 380 (9859): 2095–128. PMID 23245604. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. 
  8. Ejazi, SA; Ali, N (Jan 2013). "Developments in diagnosis and treatment of visceral leishmaniasis during the last decade and future prospects.". Expert review of anti-infective therapy 11 (1): 79–98. PMID 23428104. doi:10.1586/eri.12.148.