Pertussis

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Pertussis, e tsejwang hape ele ho kgohlela ho etsang modumo o kang molodi kapa ho kgohlela ha matsatsi a 100, ke bolwetse ba baktheria bo tshwaetsanwang haholo.[1][2] Qalong hangata matshwao a tshwana le a sefuba se tlwaelehileng se etsang mamina, feberu le ho kgohlela ho seng matla. Ebe sena se latelwa ke ho kgohlela haholo ka dibeke tse ngata. Ka mora ho kgohlela hoo, ho utlwahala modumo o phahameng o kang molodi ha motho a hula moya.[2] Ho kgohlela ho ka nka matsatsi a fetang a lekgolo kapa dibeke tse leshome.[3] Motho a ka kgohlela haholo hoo a hlatsang, a robehang dikgopo kapa a kgathale haholo ka lebaka la ho kgohlela.[2][4] Bana ba ka tlaase ho selemo ba ka nna ba kgohlela hanyane kapa ba se kgohlele ho hang ho e na le hoo ho be le nako moo ba sa hemeng.[2] Nako e dipakeng tsa ho tshwaetswa le ho bontsha matshwao a qalang hangata ke matsatsi a supileng ho isa ho a leshome.[5] Bolwetse bo ka nna ba tshwara le ba kileng ba entwa empa matshwao e ba a bobebe.[2]

Pertussis e bakwa ke baktheria ya Bordetella pertussis. Ke bolwetse bo tsamayang ka moya mme bo ka nama habobebe ha motho ya tshwaeditsweng a kgohlela kapa a thimola.[6] Motho o tshwaetsa ba bang ho tloha ha matshwao a qala ho fihlela hoo e ka bang dibeke tse tharo ka mora hore a qale ho kgohlela. Ba phekotsweng ka di-antibiotic ha ba sa tshwaetsa ba bang ka mora matsatsi a mahlano.[7] Ho bona hore na motho o tshwaeditswe diteko di etswa ka hore ho nkwe lero le morao ho nko le qoqotho. Lero lena le ka etswa diteko mohlomong ka hore le hodiswe disele (culture) kapa ka polymerase chain reaction.[8]

Bolwetse hangata bo thibelwa ka hore motho a hlajwe ente ya pertussis.[9] Ho kgothaletswa hore motho a hlabe ka lekgetlo la pele ha a le pakeng tsa dibeke tse tsheletseng le tse robedi a fuwe ditekanyetso tse nne dilemong tse pedi tse qalang tsa bophelo ba hae.[10] Ente e fellwa ke matla ha nako e ntse e ya mme ho kgothaletswa ditekanyo tse eketsehileng ho bana ba baholo le batho ba baholo.[11] Di-antibiotic di ka sebediswa ho thibela bolwetse hara ba pepesehileng mme ba le kotsing ya bolwetse bo matla.[12] Ho ba nang le bolwetse di-antibiotic di ka thusa ha eba di sebediswa nakong ya dibeke tse tharo ka mora hore ho hlahe matshwao a qalang empa ha e be le molemo o mokaalo ho batho ba bangata. Baneng ba ka tlaase ho selemo le ho baimana ho kgothaletswa hore ba e sebedise nakong ya dibeke tse tsheletseng ka mora matshwao a qalang. Di-antibiotic tse sebediswang di akarelletsa erythromycin, azithromycin, kapa trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.[7] Bopaki bo tshehetsang ho sebetsa ha meriana ena bakeng sa ho kgohlela ha bo matla.[13] Bana ba ka tlaase ho selemo ba lokela ho kena sepetle.[2]

Ho hakangwa hore pertussis e tshwara batho ba dimilione tse 16 ka selemo lefatsheng ka bophara.[13] Diketsahalo tse ngata di ba dinaheng tse tswelang pele mme e ka tshwara batho ba dilemo tsohle.[9][13] Ka 2013 e ile ya bolaya batho ba 61,000 - e theoha ho tloha ho ba 138,000 ka 1990.[14] Hoo e ka bang 2% ya bana ba tshwaeditsweng ba ka tlaase ho selemo ba a shwa. Ho qhoma ha bolwetse bona ho ile ha hlaloswa ka lekgetlo la pele ka sentjhuri ya bo 16.[4] Baktheria e bakang tshwaetso e ile ya hlokomelwa ka 1906. Ente e ile ya fumaneha ka bo 1940.[5]Template:Infobox medical condition (new)

  1. Carbonetti NH (June 2007). "Immunomodulation in the pathogenesis of Bordetella pertussis infection and disease". Curr Opin Pharmacol. 7 (3): 272–8. doi:10.1016/j.coph.2006.12.004. PMID 17418639.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Signs & Symptoms". May 22, 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  3. "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Fast Facts". cdc.gov. February 13, 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Complications". cdc.gov. August 28, 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Atkinson, William (May 2012). Pertussis Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (12 ed.). Public Health Foundation. pp. 215–230. ISBN 9780983263135.
  6. "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Causes & Transmission". cdc.gov. September 4, 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Treatment". cdc.gov. August 28, 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  8. "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Specimen Collection". cdc.gov. August 28, 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Heininger U (February 2010). "Update on pertussis in children". Expert review of anti-infective therapy. 8 (2): 163–73. doi:10.1586/eri.09.124. PMID 20109046.
  10. "Revised guidance on the choice of pertussis vaccines: July 2014" (PDF). Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 89 (30): 337–40. Jul 2014. PMID 25072068.
  11. "Pertussis vaccines: WHO position paper". Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 85 (40): 385–400. Oct 1, 2010. PMID 20939150.
  12. "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Prevention". cdc.gov. October 10, 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Wang, K; Bettiol, S; Thompson, MJ; Roberts, NW; Perera, R; Heneghan, CJ; Harnden, A (22 September 2014). "Symptomatic treatment of the cough in whooping cough". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9: CD003257. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003257.pub5. PMID 25243777.
  14. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMID 25530442.