Sewa se seholo

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Boloetse ba lefutso (ho tloha ho Greek πᾶν, pan, 'tsohle' le δῆμος, demos, 'batho') ke ts'oaetso ea lefu le tšoaetsanoang le "etetseng" naheng tse fetang e le 'ngoe. Ho ata ha maloetse kapele ho palo e kholo ea baahi ba a le mong kapa sebakeng se le seng ka nako e khuts'oane ho bitswa lefu la seoa.[1] Lefu le atileng le palo e tsitsitseng ea batho ba nang le tšoaetso ke “seoa”, eseng lefu la seoa . Maloetse a tšoaetsanoang a tšoaetsanoang a nang le palo e tsitsitseng ea batho ba nang le tšoaetso a kang ho ipheta-pheta ha feberu ea selemo ka kakaretso ha a qheleloe ka thoko ha a ntse a hlaha ka nako e tšoanang libakeng tse kholo tsa lefatše ho fapana le hore a phatlalatsoe lefatšeng ka bophara.

Definition and stages[fetola | fetola mohloli]

Tlhaloso le methati Boloetse ke seoa se hlahang ka bongata bo fetang meeli ea machabeng.[2] Boloetse kapa boemo ha se koluoa ​​feela hobane e atile kapa e bolaea batho ba bangata; e tlameha ho ba le tšoaetso. Mohlala, mofets'e o na le molato oa mafu a mangata empa ha e nkuoe e le seoa hobane lefu lena ha le tšoaetsane ebile ha le tšoaetsane.[3]

Lits'oaetso tsa ts'oaetso ho mafu a seoa (le ka hona, mafu a seoa) li latela sebopeho se ikhethileng sa tšepe ha se reriloe ho setšoantšo se bontšang palo ea batho ba tšoaelitsoeng nako. Sefuba sa seoa se atisang ho hlaha hangata ha se taba e phetoang ha seoa se "tsamaea." Mafu a tšoaetsanoang hangata a hasoa ka mekhahlelo e meraro e kang ea graph e ka tlase.

20200403 Flatten the curve animated GIF.gif
  1. Phapang ea pele e etsahala qalong ea kotana. Haeba motho a sebelisa ho ata ha lefu la seoa la Covid-19 joalo ka mohlala, sena se ka tšoaea qaleho ea ho ata ha lefu lena, ha ho ne ho na le linyeoe tse fokolang tse netefalitsoeng.
  2. Karolo ea bobeli ea lefu lena la seoa e bontša "karolo ea sechaba".[4] Sena ke ha liketane tsa ts'oaetso ea batho li hola ha likarolo tse ncha tsa batho li tšoaelitsoe.
  3. Karolo ea boraro ea seoa sa seoa se bonts'a hore seoa se hlahisitsoe ka taolo, kapa hore ha ho na ts'oaetso e ncha.


Tsamaiso[fetola | fetola mohloli]

Hona le mehato e mengata eo linaha li ka e nkang ho laola seoa sa koluoa. Ka 2005 Mokhatlo oa Lefatše oa Bophelo o ile oa amohela melaoana ea machaba ea Heath, e leng moralo oa molao oa ho thibela, ho laola le ho arabela likotsi tsa bophelo bo botle ba sechaba tse kanna tsa hasana lipakeng tsa linaha.[5] Ho feta moo, Mokhatlo oa Lefatše oa Bophelo o hlahisitse bukana e qaqileng ea ho sebetsana le mafu a seoa a feberu . Buka ena e phatlalalitsoe ka lekhetlo la pele ka 1999 mme ea ntlafatsoa le ho ntlafatsoa ka 2005 le 2009.[5] Boholo ba mehato e sebelisitsoeng ho loants'a koluoa ​​ea Covid-19 e nkiloe ho litataiso tsa ho itšireletsa ha lefu la Machabeng la 2005 le Mokhatlo oa Lefatše oa Bophelo. Ho bile le puisano e kholo mabapi le mokhoa oa 3T (Teko, kalafo, ho ts'oara) e lumellang linaha ho khetholla linyeoe tse ngata ka pele kamoo li ka khonang, pele li ba khetholla le ho li alafa.[6] Mokhoa ona o kenyelletsa ho batla batho bohle ba nang le tšoaetso o kopaneng le bona. le, le ho ba khetholla. Mokhoa ona o phatlalalitsoe ke katleho ea ts'ebetsong ea ts'ebetso ea ona libakeng tse joalo ka Korea Boroa le Singapore, leha ho thoe ho boletsoe linaha tsena li lokiselitsoe hantle ka lits'ebetso kamora pherekano e bakiloeng ke SARS.

Ts'oaetso ea kahisano, kapa mokhoa o pharalletseng haholoanyane oa ts'ebetso, ke ts'ebetso ea bophelo bo botle ea sechaba e ikemiselitseng ho fokotsa phetiso ea mafu ka ho thibela batho ho kopana haufi le 'mele ho fokotsa menyetla ea phetiso ea mafu a tšoaetsanoang le a tšoaetsanoang. Motsamaisi ea Phahameng Dr Michael J Ryan oa Mokhatlo oa Lefatše oa Bophelo o boletse puisanong ea boralitaba ka Hlakubele 2019 a re ho fapoha 'meleng ke ntho ea nakoana ho fokotsa tšoaetso ea vaerase, le khatello ea sistimi, empa eseng ho rarolla vaerase. ka boeona. Ho theko e boima, 'me ho hlokahala hore ho sebelisoe mehato e meng ho rarolla bothata. ” [7] Dr Ryan o hlakisitse hore ho its'ila ho ke ke ha hlakola lefu lena.

Pandemics ea hajoale[fetola | fetola mohloli]

HIV / AIDS[fetola | fetola mohloli]

Sengoloa se ka sehloohong: Epidemiology ea HIV / AIDS

Le ha WHO e sebelisa poleloana 'seoa sa lefats'e' ho hlalosa HIV[8], ke seoa se latelang ts'ebetso ea lentsoe. Ho tloha ka 2018, batho ba ka bang limilione tse 37.9 ba na le tšoaetso ea HIV lefatšeng ka bophara.[9] Ho bile le lefu la batho ba ka bang 770,000 ba bolailoeng ke AIDS ka 2018. [xii] Hajoale, Afrika-Boroa ho Sahara ke eona sebaka se amehileng ka ho fetisisa. Ka selemo sa 2018, hakanngoa hore 61% ea ts'oaetso e ncha ea HIV e teng sebakeng sena [xiii]

Di-coronavirus[fetola | fetola mohloli]

Coronaviruses (CoV) ke lelapa le leholo la livaerase tse bakang bokuli ho tloha mafu a tloaelehileng ho ea ho mafu a matla a kang Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) le Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). Mofuta o mocha oa coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) o baka lefu la Coronavirus 2019, kapa COVID-19.[10] Li-coronavirus tse ling ke zoonotic, ho bolelang hore li fetisoa lipakeng tsa liphoofolo le batho. Patlisiso e qaqileng e fumane hore SARS-CoV e fetiselitsoe ho likatse tsa civet ho motho, le MERS-CoV ho tloha likamele tse hulang ho batho. Li-coronavirus tse 'maloa tse tsebahalang li potoloha ho liphoofolo tse e-s'o tšoae batho tšoaetso.

Mofuta o mocha oa coronavirus o simolohileng Wuhan, profinseng ea Hubei, Chaena, bofelong ba Pherekhong 2019,[11] o bakile khohlano ea linyeoe tsa lefu le matla la phefumoloho, leo ho thoeng ke lefu la coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Ho ea ka Dashboard[12] ea John Hopkins, hoo e ka bang linaha le libaka tse 200 li anngoe ke COVID-19, ha ho hlaha likoluoa ​​tse kholo United States, China bohareng, Europe bophirima le Iran.[13] Ka la 11 Hlakubele 2020, Mokhatlo oa Lefatše oa Bophelo o tšoaea ho ata ha COVID-19 e le seoa. [14] [15] Ho tloha ka la 23 Mmesa 2020, palo ea batho ba tšoaelitsoeng ke COVID-19 e fihlile ho limilione tse 2.63 lefatšeng ka bophara, lenane la ba bolaeang e ne e le 184,249 mme palo ea ba bolaeang e ne e le 184,249 bakuli ba foletsoeng e bile 722,055.[16]

Lits'oaetso Tse Hlokahalang[fetola | fetola mohloli]

Malaria[fetola | fetola mohloli]

Malaria e atile libakeng tse chesang tse mongobo le tse libakeng tse chesang, ho kenyeletsa le libaka tsa Amerika, Asia le Afrika. Selemo se seng le se seng, ho na le mafu a malaria a ka bang limilione tse 350-500.[17] Ho hanyetsa lithethefatsi ho baka bothata bo ntseng bo hola kalafong ea lefu la mala lekholong lena la bo mashome a mabeli la lilemo, kaha ho hanyetsa hona joale ho atile khahlanong le lihlopha tsohle tsa litlhare tse thibelang mafu ntle le li-artemisinins[18] Malaria e kile ea e-ba teng hangata ho fetisisa Europe le Amerika Leboea, moo hona joale e leng sieo e leng sieo. [Xxiii] Malaria e kanna ea kenya letsoho ho theoha hoa Mmuso oa Roma.[19] Lefu lena le ile la tsejoa e le "feberu ea Roma".[20] Plasmodium falciparum e ile ea e-ba tšokelo ea sebele ho bo-ralikolone le batho ba matsoalloa a tšoanang ha e ne e tsebisoa Amerika le khoebo ea makhoba.[21]

Spanish Flu[fetola | fetola mohloli]

Feberu ea Spain (1918 ho ea ho 1920) e tšoaelitse batho ba limilione tse 500 ho pota lefatše, [xxvii] ho kenyelletsa batho ba lihlekehlekeng tse hole tsa Pacific le Arctic, mme e bolaile batho ba limilione tse 20 ho isa ho 100.[22] [23] Seoa sa ntaramane se phatloha ka mokhoa o sa sebetseng haholo le ba baholo haholo, ka tekanyo e phahameng ea ho pholoha ho ba mahareng. Empa ntaramane ea Spain e ne e na le sekhahla se phahameng sa lefu la batho ba baholo.[24] Spain flu e bolaile batho ba bangata ho feta Ntoa ea I ea Lefatše mme e bolaile batho ba bangata ka libeke tse 25 ho feta kamoo AIDS e bolaileng lilemong tsa eona tse 25 tse fetileng.[25] [26] Ho tsamaea ha mabotho a mangata le libaka tse atamelaneng nakong ea Ntoa ea I ea Lefatše ho ile ha etsa hore e ate le ho fetoha ka potlako; menyetla ea masole ea ho tšoaroa ke feberu ea Spain e kanna ea eketseha ka lebaka la khatello ea maikutlo, khaello ea phepo e nepahetseng le tlhaselo ea lik'hemik'hale.[27] Lits'ebeletso tse ntlafalitsoeng tsa lipalangoang li ile tsa nolofalletsa masole, basesisi ba sekepe le baeti ba sechaba hore ba phatlalatse lefu lena.[28]

Matšoenyeho ka Likokoana-hloko tse tlang[fetola | fetola mohloli]

Khahlano le antibiotic[fetola | fetola mohloli]

Sengoloa se ka sehloohong: Ho hanyetsa lithibela-mafu Likokoana-hloko tse thibelang likokoana-hloko ka linako tse ling li bitsoa "superbugs". Li ka kenya letsoho ho hlaha mafu a seng a laoloa hantle ha joale.[29] Mohlala, linyeoe tsa lefuba tse hanyetsanang le mekhoa e tloaehileng ea kalafo li lula e le lebaka le tebileng ho litsebi tsa bophelo bo botle. Hoo e ka bang halofo ea milione ea lefuba le phekolang lefuba le sa phekoleheng ka bongata, MDR-TB, e hakanyetsoa selemo se seng le se seng.[30] China le India li na le tekanyetso e phahameng ka ho fetisisa ea TB e hanyetsanang le meriana.[31] Mokhatlo oa Lefatše oa Bophelo (WHO). e tlaleha hore batho ba ka bang limilione tse 50 lefatšeng ka bophara ba tšoaelitsoe lefu la MDR, ka liperesente tse 79 tsa linyeoe tseo li hanana le lithibela-mafu tse tharo kapa ho feta. Ka 2005, ho tlalehiloe linyeoe tse 124 tsa MDR TB United States. Lefuba le hanyetsanang le lithethefatsi haholo (XDR TB) le ile la tsebahala Afrika ka 2006, mme kamora moo la fumanoa le fumaneha linaheng tse 49, ho kenyeletsa le United States. Ho na le liketsahalo tse ka bang 40,000 tsa XDR-TB ka selemo, WHO e hakanya.[32]

Lilemong tse 20 tse fetileng, libaktheria tse tloaelehileng tse kenyeletsang Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens le Enterococcus, li hlahisitse ho hanyetsa lithibela-mafu tse fapaneng tse kang vancomycin, hammoho le lihlopha tsohle tsa lithibela-mafu, tse kang aminoglycosides le cephalosporins. Likokoana-hloko tse loantšang likokoana-hloko li fetohile sesosa sa bohlokoa sa tšoaetso e amanang le bophelo bo botle (nosocomial) (HAI). Ntle le moo, ts'oaetso e bakoang ke mafu a fumanoang ke setereke ea methicillin Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ho batho ba phetseng hantle e atile khafetsa lilemong tsa morao tjena.

Viral hemorrhagic fevers[fetola | fetola mohloli]

Mefuta ea vaerase ea hemorrhagic ke mafu a tšoaetsanoang haholo le a bolaeang. Mehlala e kenyelletsa lefu la vaerase ea Ebola, feberu ea Lassa, Rift Valley fever, lefu la vaerase ea Marburg le Bolivian hemorrhagic fever. Batho ba nang le tšoaetso ea hemorrhagic ba na le matla a ho ba le lefu la seoa.[33] Matla a bona a ho hasana ka potlako ho baka lefu la seoa a fokola hobane ho fetisoa ha livaerase tsena ho hloka kamano e haufi le motho ea tšoaelitsoeng, 'me motho ea nang le tšoaetso o na le nako e khuts'oane pele a hlokahala. kapa bokuli bo tebileng. Nako e khuts'oane lipakeng tsa motho ea tšoaetsanang le ho qala hoa matšoao e lumella litsebi tsa bongaka ho beha batho ba tšoaelitsoeng kapele, le ho ba thibela ho tsamaisa pathogen kae kapa kae.

Kokoana-hloko ea Zika[fetola | fetola mohloli]

Lingoloa tsa mantlha: Seoa sa vaerase ea Zika sa 2015-16, vaerase ea Zika, le feberu ea Zika. Ho phatloha ha vaerase ea Zika ho qalile ka selemo sa 2015 mme ho matlafala ho tloha qalong ea selemo sa 2016, ho bile le linyeoe tse fetang limilione tse 1.5 linaheng tse fetang 12 tsa Amerika. Mokhatlo oa Lefatše oa Bophelo o lemositse hore Zika o na le monyetla oa ho ba seoa sa lefats'e se phatlohang haeba tšenyo e sa laoloe.[34]

References[fetola | fetola mohloli]

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  2. Porta, Miquel, ed. (2008). Dictionary of Epidemiology. Oxford University Press. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-19-531449-6. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
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  5. 5.0 5.1 See: https://www.who.int/ihr/publications/9789241580496/en
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  10. McArdleColumnistBioBioFollowFollowColumnist, Megan McArdle closeMegan. "Opinion | When a danger is growing exponentially, everything looks fine until it doesn't". Washington Post. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
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