Boimana

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Boimana
Tlhophiso le mehlaodi ya kantle
Mosadi wa moimana
Mosadi wa moimana
ICD/CIM-10 Z33 Z33
ICD/CIM-9 650 650
DiseasesDB 10545
MedlinePlus 002398

Boimana, ho tsejwang hape e le ho ithwalakapa bokgatjhane ,ke nako eongwana a le mong kapa ba bangataba holang kahare homosadi.[1] boimana ba bana ba bangataho kenyeletsa ho fetang ngwana a le mong, jwalo ka mafahla.[2] Boimana bo ka hlaha ka thobalanokapaka theknology e thusang ho imisa. Ka tlwaelo e nka dibeke tse 40 (10nbsp;dikgwedi tse lekanngwang ka tlhahlamano ya dikgwedi tse ntjha (lunar months ) ) ho tloha holetsatsi la ho qetelala la ho ya kgweding(LMP) mme e felella mohla tlhaho ya ngwana.[1][3] Hona ke ho etsang dibeke tse 38 ka mora ho ho emola. An embryo is the developing offspring during the first 8 weeks following conception after which the term fetus is used until birth.[3] Matshwao a pele a boima a kanna a kenyeletsa ho tlolwa ke nako ya ho ya kgweding, matswele a bonolo,ho nyokgoloha le ho hlatsa, ho lapa, le ho ntsha metsi kgafetsa.[4] Boimana bo ka netefetswa ka teko ya boimana.[5]

Boimana bo ka arolwa ka dihla tse dikgweditharo tse tharo. Sehla sa pele sa kgweditharo se qalang bekeng ya pele ho isa bekeng ya boleshomelemetso e mmedi ho kenyeletswa le ho ima. Ho ima ho latelwa ke ha lehe le nontshitswengle theohelang tlase ho fallopian tube le mamarela bokahareng ba popelo moo le qala ho bopa ngwana lelelana la phepelo ya lesea.[1] Sehla sa pele sa kgweditharo se na le kotsi e kgolo ya ho senyehelwa(ho shwa ha tlhaho ha lesea le ka popelong).[6] Sehla sa kgweditharo ya bobedi se qala ho tloha bekeng ya 13 ho isa ho ya 28. Mahareng a sehla sa kgweditharo ya bobedi motsamao wa lesea o kanna wa utlwahala. Dibekeng tse 28 ho fetang 90% ya masea ho phela ka ntle ho popelohaeba a fumantswa tlhokomelo ya boleng bo hodimo ba bongaka. Sehla sa kgweditharo ya boraro se qala dibekeng tse 29 ho isa ho dibeke tse 40.[1]

Tlhokomelo ya motswadi e ntlafatsa sephetho sa boimana.[7] Hona ho kanna ha kenyeletsa ho nwaasiti ya folic e eketsehileng, ho qoba dithethefatsi le tahi, ho hlakisa kamehla, diteko tsa madi le tlhahlobo e kgafetsa ya mmele.[7] Mathata a boimanaa kanna a kenyeletsakgatello ya madi ya boimana, lefu la tswekere la boimana ,kgaello ya tshepe mading, le boemo ba ho hlatsa ho totileng hara a mang.[8] Sehla sa boimana ke dibeke tse 37 ho isa ho dibeke tse 41, moo sehla sa kapele e leng dibeke tse 37 le tse 38, sehla se tletseng ke dibeke tse 39 le tse 40, sehla se morao nakong ke dibeke tse 41. Ka mora dibeke tse 41 etsejwa e le post term. Bana ba hlahang pele ho dibeke tse 37 ho thwe ke pretermmme ba kotsing e kgolo ya mathat a bophelo bo botle a jwalo ka bothata ba motsamao wa ditho(cerebral palsy)[1] Ho kgothaletswa hore ho pepa ho se etswe ha maiketsetso ka sepotlakisa ho beleha kapa caesareane sectionpeleho dibeke tse 39 ntle leha ho hlokahala ka mabaka a bongaka.[9]

Ho ka bang dimilione tse 213 ha boimana ho etsahetse mahareng a 2012 boo etsang dimilione tse 190 bo etsahetse dinaheng tse ntseng di tswela pele mme dimilione tse 28 di ne di le dinaheng tse tswetseng pele. Hona e ka ba boimana basading ba 133 ho ba 1,000 ba mahareng a dilemo tse 15 le tse 44.[10] Ho ka bang 10% ho isa ho 15 % ho boimana bo elwang hloko bo fella e le ho senyehelwa.[6] Ka 2013 mathata a boimana a bakile mafu a 293,000 a bileng tlase ho tloha ho mafu a 377,000 ka 1990. Disosa tse tlwaelehileng di kenyeletsaho tswa madi ha bomme, mathata a ho ntsha mpa, kgatello ya madi ya boimana,tshwaetso ya bomme, le ho beleha ho sitisitsweng.[11] Lefatshe ka bophara 40% ya boimana ke bo sa hlophiswang. Halofo ya boimana bo sa rerwang ke le bo fedisitsweng.[10] Hara boimana bo sa ikemisetswang Dinaheng tse Kopanng tsa Amerika, 60% ya basadi ba sebedisitsetaolo ya pelehi e itseng nakong ya kgwedi eo boimana bo etsahetseng ka bona.[12]

Ditshupu[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 "Pregnancy: Condition Information". http://www.nichd.nih.gov/. 2013-12-19. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  2. Wylie, Linda (2005). Essential anatomy and physiology in maternity care (Second Edition ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. p. 172. ISBN 9780443100413. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Abman, Steven H. (2011). Fetal and neonatal physiology (4th ed. ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders. pp. 46–47. ISBN 9781416034797. 
  4. "What are some common signs of pregnancy?". http://www.nichd.nih.gov/. 07/12/2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  5. "How do I know if I’m pregnant?". http://www.nichd.nih.gov/. 2012-11-30. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 The Johns Hopkins Manual of Gynecology and Obstetrics (4 ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2012. p. 438. ISBN 9781451148015. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "What is prenatal care and why is it important?". http://www.nichd.nih.gov/. 07/12/2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  8. "What are some common complications of pregnancy?". http://www.nichd.nih.gov/. 07/12/2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  9. World Health Organization (November 2014). "Preterm birth Fact sheet N°363". who.int. Retrieved 6 Mar 2015. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Sedgh, G; Singh, S; Hussain, R (September 2014). "Intended and unintended pregnancies worldwide in 2012 and recent trends.". Studies in family planning 45 (3): 301–14. PMID 25207494. 
  11. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.". Lancet. PMID 25530442. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. 
  12. K. Joseph Hurt, Matthew W. Guile, Jessica L. Bienstock, Harold E. Fox, Edward E. Wallach (eds.). The Johns Hopkins manual of gynecology and obstetrics (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health / Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 382. ISBN 9781605474335.