Tlhaho ya ngwana

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Tlhaho ya ngwana
Tlhophiso le mehlaodi ya kantle
Newborn infant and mother
Newborn infant and mother

Tlhaho ya ngwana , e tsejwang hape e le ho belehwa ha ngwana, ke pheletso ya boimanaya lesea le le leng kapa masea a fetangho tswa popelong yamosadi[1] Ka 2015 ho bile le ho hlaha ha bana ba dimilione tse 135 lefatshe ka bophara.[2] Ba ka bang dimilione tse 15 ba ne ba hlaha pele ho dibeke tse 37 tsa boimana,[3]ha ba mahareng 3% ho isa ho12% ba ile ba hlaha ya dibeke tse 42[4] Dinaheng tse tse tswetseng peleboholo ba ho belehwa ha masea ho ne ho etsahala sepetlele,[5][6]ha dinaheng tse tswelang pele tsa lefatsheboholo ba ho belehwa ha masea ho ne ho etsahala hae ka tshehetso ya mmelehisi wa setso[7]

Tlhaho ya masea e tlwaelehileng haholo ke ke ho belehwa ha tsel a tlhaho[8] Ho kenyeletse mekgahlelo e meraro ya ho beleha:kgutsofatsoleho buleha ha ha molomo wa popelo, ho theoha le ho hlaha ha ngwana, ho tswa kamohlaneng[9] Mokgahlelo wa pele ha e le hantle o nka diroha tse leshome le metso e mmedi ho isa ho tse leshome le metso e robong, mokgahlelo wa bobedi o nka metsotso e mashome a mabedi ho isa dihoreng tse pedi, mme mokgahlelo wa boraro o nka metsotso e mehlano ho isa ho e mashome a mararo. [10] Mokgahleo wa pele o qala ka mahlaba ka maleng kapa mahlaba mokokotlong a nkang ho etsang halofo ya motsotso mme a ba teng hape metsotso e meng le e meng e leshome ho isa ho e mashome a mararo.[9] Mahlaba a matlafala mme a atamelana ha nako e ntse e ya.[10] Nakong ya mokgahlelo wa bobedi ho sututswa le ho honyela ho kanna ha etsahala.[10] Mokgahleloong wa boraro ho diehitswa ha ho kgaoha ha lelana le hokahantseng lesea le mmalona ka popelong [11] Mekgwa e mengata e ka thusa ka lehlaba jwalo ka ditsela tsa ho hlephisa,sethethefatsi sa opoiods, le(di)sethibela mokokotlo (spinal bloc)[10]

Boholo ba masea bo pepuwa ka ho hlahisa hloho pele; leha ho le jwalo ho ka etsang 4% a pepuwa ka ho hlahisa maoto kapa maraopele, ho tsejwang e le ho pepa ha breechbreech[10][12] Nakong ya ho pepa ka kakaretso basadi ba kanna ba ja le ho sisinyeha ka moo ba ratang ka teng, ho sututsa ha ho a kgothaletswa nakong ya mokgahlelo wa pele kapa nakong eo hloho e hlahang, le tshebetso ya ho tshela sephalli ka mohlamung (enema)[13] Ho seha ho bula lesobabosading, ho bitswang, episiotomy, e tlwaelehile empa ka kakaretso ha e hlokahale.[10] Ka 2012, ho ka etsang dimilione tse 23 tsa ho pepa di entswe ka opareishene e bitswangCaesarea section[14] Caesarean sections di kanna tsa kgothaletswa bakeng samafahla,matshwao a mang bontshang kotsi leseeng kapa ho hlaha ha lesea ka karolo e nngwe ntle le hlooho.[10] Mokgwa ona wa ho beleha o kanna wa nka nako e teletsana ho fola.[10]

Selemo se seng le se seng mathata a boimana le ho hlaha ha ngwana ho baka ho ka etsang 500,000ha mafu a batswetse, dimilione tse 7 tsa basadi ba ba le mathata a nako e telele, le dimilione tse 50 tsa basadi di ba le sephetho se sebe maphelng a bona se bakwang ke ho beleha. [15] Boholo ba ona bo hlaha dinaheng tse ntseng di tswela pele[15] Mathata a ikgethang a kenyeletsa ho beleha ho sitisehileng,, tahlehelo ya madi nakwana ka mora ho beleha (postpartum bleeding),mathata a nang le matshosetsi bophelong a bakwang ke boimana(eclampsia), letshwaetso ka mora ho beleha[15] Mathata leseeng a kenyeletsaho fellwa ke oksejene nakong ya ho belehwa (asphyxia)[16]

Ditshupu[edit | edit source]

  1. Martin, Elizabeth. Concise Colour Medical Dictionary (in English). Oxford University Press. p. 375. ISBN 9780199687992. 
  2. "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. July 11, 2016. Retrieved 30 July 2016. 
  3. "Preterm birth Fact sheet N°363". WHO. November 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2016. 
  4. Buck, Germaine M.; Platt, Robert W. (2011). Reproductive and perinatal epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 163. ISBN 9780199857746. 
  5. Co-Operation, Organisation for Economic; Development (2009). Doing better for children. Paris: OECD. p. 105. ISBN 9789264059344. 
  6. Olsen, O; Clausen, JA (12 September 2012). "Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (9): CD000352. PMID 22972043. 
  7. Fossard, Esta de; Bailey, Michael (2016). Communication for Behavior Change: Volume lll: Using Entertainment–Education for Distance Education. SAGE Publications India. ISBN 9789351507581. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  8. Memon, HU; Handa, VL (May 2013). "Vaginal childbirth and pelvic floor disorders.". Women's health (London, England) 9 (3): 265–77; quiz 276–7. PMID 23638782. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Birth". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia (6 ed.). Columbia University Press. 2016. Retrieved 2016-07-30 from Encyclopedia.com. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 "Pregnancy Labor and Birth". Women's Health. September 27, 2010. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  11. McDonald, SJ; Middleton, P; Dowswell, T; Morris, PS (11 July 2013). "Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping of term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (7): CD004074. PMID 23843134. 
  12. Hofmeyr, GJ; Hannah, M; Lawrie, TA (21 July 2015). "Planned caesarean section for term breech delivery.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (7): CD000166. PMID 26196961. 
  13. Childbirth: Labour, Delivery and Immediate Postpartum Care (in English). World Health Organization. 2015. p. Chapter D. ISBN 978-92-4-154935-6. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  14. Molina, G; Weiser, TG; Lipsitz, SR; Esquivel, MM; Uribe-Leitz, T; Azad, T; Shah, N; Semrau, K; Berry, WR; Gawande, AA; Haynes, AB (1 December 2015). "Relationship Between Cesarean Delivery Rate and Maternal and Neonatal Mortality". JAMA 314 (21): 2263–70. PMID 26624825. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.15553. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Education material for teachers of midwifery : midwifery education modules (2nd ed.). Geneva [Switzerland]: World Health Organisation. 2008. p. 3. ISBN 978-92-4-154666-9. 
  16. Martin, Richard J.; Fanaroff, Avroy A.; Walsh, Michele C. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine: Diseases of the Fetus and Infant (in English). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 116. ISBN 9780323295376.