Marabi (Bohlanyantja)

E tswa ho Wikipedia
Jump to: navigation, phuputso
Marabi (Bohlanyantja)
Tlhophiso le mehlaodi ya kantle
Ntja e nang le marabi e seng e thethefetse bohale
Ntja e nang le marabi e seng e thethefetse bohale
ICD/CIM-10 A82 A82
DiseasesDB 11148
MedlinePlus 001334

Marabi ke bolwetse bo bakwang ke vaerase e bakang ho ruruha ha boko bathong le ho tse ding tsa diphoofolo tse madi a futhumetseng.[1] Matshwao a ho kula a bang teng pele a kenyeletsa feberu le ho hlohlona sebakeng se amehileng.[1] Matshwao ana a ho kula a latelwa ke le le leng kapa a fetang bonngwe a matshwao a latelang a ho kula: ho thothomela ho sa laoleheng, ho thaba ho fetang tekano, ho tshaba metsi, ho se kgone ho tsamaisa ditho tsa mmele, pherekano le ho lahlehelwa ke kelello.[1] Kamora hore matshwao a ho kula a hlahe, marabi hangata a qetella ka lefu.[1] Nako e mahareng a ho tshwaetswa ke bolwetse le ho iponahatsa ha matshwao a ho kula ka tlwaelo ke kgwedi ho isa dikgweding tse tharo. Leha ho le jwalo, nako ena e ka fapafapana ho tloha bonyane bekeng e le nngwe ho isa ho nako e fetang selemo se le seng.[1] Nako e itshetlehile hodima sebaka seo vaerase e tlamehang ho se tsamaya ho fihla bokong.[2]

Sesosa le tlhahlobo ya ho kula[edit | edit source]

Marabi a fetisetswa bathong ho tswa diphoofolong tse ding. Marabi a ka fetiswa ha phoofolo e tshwaeditsweng e ngwapa kapa e loma phoofolo e nngwe kapa motho.[1] Mathe a phoofolo e tshwaeditsweng a kanna a fetisa marabi haeba a ka ama lera le ka nkong ya phoofolo e nngwe kapa motho.[1] Boholo ba diketsahalo tsa marabi bathong bo bakwa ke ho longwa ke dintja.[1] Diketsahalo tse fetang 99% tsa marabi dinaheng tseo hangata dintja di nang le marabi di bakwa ke ho longwa ke dintja.[3] Dinaheng tsa Amerika Leboya le America Borwa, ho longwa ke bomankgane ke sesosa se tlwaelehileng sa tshwaetso ya marabi bathong, mme ho ka tlase ho 5% ke diketsahalo tsa ho longwa ke dintja.[1][3] Ke ka sewelo diroto di tshwaetswang ke marabi.[3] Vaerase ya marabi e mathela bokong ho latela methapokutlo. Bolwetse bo ka hlahlojwa kamora ho qala ha matshwao a ho kula.[1]

Thibelo le kalofo[edit | edit source]

Mananeo a taolo le ho entwa ha diphoofolo a fokoditse kotsi ya marabi a hlahang dintjeng mabatoweng a mangata lefatsheng.[1] Ho tshetlela ha batho pele ba pepeswa bolwetseng ba marabi ho a kgothaletswa ho thibela ho ba kotsing e kgolo. Sehlopha se kotsing e kgolo se kenyeleditse batho ba sebetsanang le bomankgane kapa ba qetang nako e telele dibakeng tsa lefatshe moo bolwetse ba marabi bo leng bongata.[1] Bathong ba bileng pepesong ya bolwetse ba marabi, ente ya marabi ka nako e nngwe le mmunoglobulin ya marabi di sebetsa ka ho phethahala ho thibela bolwetse ha motho a fumane kalafo pele matshwao a ho kula a marabi a qala.[1] Ho hlatswa ho longwa le mengwapo nako ya metsotso e 15 ka sesepa le metsi, povidone iodine, kapa sesebediswa sa ho hlwekisa se ka bolayang vaerase le sona se bonahala se ka sebetsa ka ho phethahala ho thibeleng phetiso ya marabi.[1] Ke batho ba seng ba kae ba phonyohileng tshwaetsong ya marabi kamora ho ba le matshwao a ho kula. Bana e ne e le ba bileng kalafo e matla e tsejwnag ka hore ke Milwaukee protocol.[4]

Ente[edit | edit source]

Ente ya marabi ke ente e sebedisetswang ho thibela marabi.[5] Ho na le palo e fumanehang ya diente tse bolokehileng tse bileng di sebetsa ka ho phethahala. Di ka sebediswa ho thibela marabi pele ho nako le kamora nako ya ho ba pepesong ya vaerase e jwaloka ho longwa ke ntja kapa mankgane. Ho tshetlela ho etsahalang ho ba nako e telele kamora tekanyetso tse tharo. Ha ngata di fumantshwa ka ho hlajwa ka injekshene letlalong kapa mosifeng. Kamora ho pepeswa bolwetseng ente hantlentle e lokela ho sebediswa mmoho le immunoglobulin ya marabi. Ho kgothaletswa hore batho ba kotsing e kgolo ya pepeso ba entwe pele ho pepeso e ka bang teng. Diente di sebetsa ka ho phethahala bathong le diphoofolong tse ding. Ho setlela ha dintja ho phethahetse hantle ho thibela bolwetse bathong.[5]

Polokeho[edit | edit source]

Dimilione tsa batho lefatshe ka bophara di se di entilwe mme ho akangwa hore hona ho sireleditse batho ba fetang 250,000 ka selemo.[5] Di ka sebediswa ka polokeho dihlopheng tsa batho ba dilemo tse fapaneng. Ho ka etsang diphesente tse 35 ho isa ho tse 45 tsa batho ba ba le nako e kgutshwane ya ho tlerefala le bohloko sebakeng se hlabilweng. Ho ka etsang diphesente tse 5 ho isa ho tse 15 tsa batho ba kanna ba ba le [[]]feberuho opelwa ke hlooho, kapa ho nyokgoloha. Kamora ho pepesetswa bolwetseng ba marabi ha ho na kganyetsano ho e sebediseng. Boholo ba diente ha di na thimerosal. Diente tse entsweng ka sekotwana sa mothapokutlo di sebediswa dinaheng tse mmalwa, haholoholo Asia le dinaheng tsa Latin Amerika, empa ha di hlile ha di sebetse ka ho phethahala ebile di na le ditlamorao tse kgolo. Kahoo tshebediso ya tsona ha e kgothaletswe ke Mokgatlo wa Lefatshe wa Bophelo bo Botle.[5]

Ditjeho tsa ho di reka holeseileng di mahareng a Didolara tsa Amerika tse 44 le 78 bakeng sa kalafo e phetwaphetwang ho tloha ka 2014.[6] Dinaheng tse Kopaneng tsa Amerika kalafo e phetwaphethwang ya ente ya marabi e feta Didolara tsa Amerika tse 750.[7]

Lekala la meriana le sebetsang ka taolo ya malwetse[edit | edit source]

Marabi a baka mafu a ka bang 26,000 ho isa ho 55,000 lefatshe ka bophara selemo le selemo.[1][8] Ho fetang 95% ya mafu ana a etsahala Asia le Afrika.[1] Marabi e fumaneha dinaheng tse fetang 150 dikontinenteng tsohle ntle le Antatika.[1] Ho fetang dibilione tse 3 tsa batho ba phela mabatoweng a lefatshe moo marabi e fumanehang.[1] Boholong ba Yuropa le Ostralia, marabi a fumanwa ho bomankgane.[9] Ditjhaba tsa dihlekehleke tse nnyane di hloka marabi ho hang.[10]

Ditshupu[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 "Rabies Fact Sheet N°99". World Health Organization. July 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  2. Cotran RS; Kumar V; Fausto N (2005). Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (7th ed.). Elsevier/Saunders. p. 1375. ISBN 0-7216-0187-1. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Tintinalli, Judith E. (2010). Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide (Emergency Medicine (Tintinalli)). McGraw-Hill. pp. Chapter 152. ISBN 0-07-148480-9. 
  4. Hemachudha T, Ugolini G, Wacharapluesadee S, Sungkarat W, Shuangshoti S, Laothamatas J (May 2013). "Human rabies: neuropathogenesis, diagnosis, and management.". Lancet neurology 12 (5): 498–513. PMID 23602163. doi:10.1016/s1474-4422(13)70038-3. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Rabies vaccines: WHO position paper". Weekly epidemiological record 32 (85): 309–320. Aug 6, 2010. 
  6. "Vaccine, Rabies". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 6 December 2015. 
  7. Shlim, David (June 30, 2015). "Perspectives: Intradermal Rabies Preexposure Immunization". Retrieved 6 December 2015. 
  8. Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, Shibuya K, Aboyans V, Abraham J, Adair T, Aggarwal R (Dec 15, 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.". Lancet 380 (9859): 2095–128. PMID 23245604. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. 
  9. "Presence / absence of rabies in 2007". World Health Organization. 2007. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  10. "Rabies-Free Countries and Political Units". CDC. Retrieved 1 March 2014.