Taolo ya Pelehi

E tswa ho Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Template:Infobox interventions Taolo ya pelehi, eo hape e tsejwang ka hore ke sethibelapelehi le taolo ya ho ima , ke mekgwa kapa disebediswa tse sebedisetswang ho thibela boimana[1] Thero, phumantsho, le tshebediso ya taolo ya pelehi e bitswa thero ya malapa[2][3] Mekgwa ya ho laola pelehi ha esale e sebediswa ho tloha kgalekgale, empa mekgwa e sebetsang hantle e fumanehile feela mongwahakgolong wa bomashome a mabedi [4] Ditso tse ding di thibela kapa ha di kgothaletse phumantsho ya taolo ya pelehi hobane di nahana hore di a nyonyeha ho latela boitshwaro bo botle, tumelo, kapa dipolotiki.[4]

Mekgwa e sebetsang hantle ka ho fetisisa bakeng sa taolo ya pelehi ke thethefatso ka mokgwa wa ho kgaolwa le ho tlangwa ha peipi e tsamaisang peo banneng le ho kwala ha peipi e isang peo ya banna popelong basading,sesebdiswa tse kwalang molomo wa popelo (IUDS), le dilaola pelehi tse kenngwang Hona ho latelwa ke palo ya mekgwa e itshetlehileng ho (di)homounue e kenyeletsa dipidisi tse nowang, dipetjhe, (di)reng ya bosading,diinjekshene Mekgwa e hlileng e sa sebetseng hantle e kenyeletsa ditshitiso tsa mmele tse jwalo ka (di)khondomo,(di)diaphragmledipontjhe tsa taolo ya pelehile (me)mokgwa ya tlhokomediso ya boimana Mekgwa e hlileng e sa sebetseng ho hang ke (di)sebolaya peo ya monna le ho ntsha bonna bosading ke monna pele peo ya bonna e le mothating wa ho tswela bosading Thethefatso ya ditho tse etsang pelehi, leha kwana e sebetsa hantle, ka tlwaelo ha e kgone hore ditho di busetswe tshebetsong hape; mekgwa e meng yohle e kgona hore ditho di boele di sebetse hape, boholo ba tsona hanghang ha di kgaotswa ho sebediswa.[5] Thobalano e bolokehileng, jwalo ka tshebediso ya (di)khondomo ya banna kapa ya basadi, le yona e ka thusa ho thibela ditshwaetso tse fetiswang ka tobalano.[6][7] Taolo ya pelehi tlasa maemo a tshohanyetso.[8] Batho ba itseng ba nka ho se etse ketso tsa thobalano jwalo ka taolo ya pelehi, empa ho ila thobalano feela ke mokgwa wa thuto ya thobalanoe ka nna ya eketsaboimana hara batjha[9][10]

boimana, Thuto ya thobalanoka kakaretso le phumantsho ya taolo ya pelehi e fokotsa sekgahla sa boimana bo sa batlweng sehlopheng sena.[11][12] Leha dibopeho tsohle tsa taolo ya pelehi di kanna tsa sebediswa ke batjha,[13]kgutlisiso morao e telele ya taolo ya pelehi [12] Ka mora ho hlaha ha lesea, mosadi ya sa antsheng a kanna a ima hape ka mora ho ka etsang dibeke tse nne ho isa ho tse tsheletseng. Mekgwa e meng ya taolo ya pelehi e kanna ya qalwa kapele ka mora ho hlaha ha lesea, ha e meng e hloka ho diehiswa ho isa dikgweding tse tsheletseng. Basading ba antshang,mekgwa ya progestin feela Basading ba seng ba fihletsenako eo ba seng ba sa ye kgweding[13]

Ho ka etsang 222nbsp ( ho se sebaka sa ho kgefutsa mahareng); milione o le mong wa basadi ba batlang ho qoba boimanadinaheng tse ntseng di tswela pele[14][15] Tshebediso ya taolo ya pelehi dinaheng tse ntseng di tswela pele e fokoditse palo ya mafu nakong ya boimana ka 40% (mafu a ka etsang 270,000 a ile a thibelwa ka 2008) mme e ka thibela mafu a etsang 70% haeba tlhoko e feletseng ya taolo ya pelehi e ne e ka fihlelwa.[16][17] Ka ho lelefatsa nako mahareng a boimana, taolo ya pelehi e ka ntlafatsa diphetho tsa ho beleha ha basadi ba baholo le ho phonyoha ha bana ba bona.[16] Dinaheng tse ntseng di tswela pele meputso ya basadi, thepa,[[ tekanyetso ya BMI (boima bo arotswe ka bolelele)<|boima]][18] Taolo ya pelehi e eketsakgolo ya moruohobane ba na le bana ba seng ba kae ba itshetlehileng ho bona, basadi ba eketsehileng ba nka karolomesebetsing[18][19]

Ditshupu[edit | fetola mohloli]

  1. "Definition of Birth control". MedicineNet. Retrieved 9 August 2012. 
  2. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. June 2012. 
  3. World Health Organization (WHO). "Family planning". Health topics. World Health Organization (WHO). 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Hanson, S.J.; Burke, Anne E. (21 December 2010). "Fertility control: contraception, sterilization, and abortion". In Hurt, K. Joseph; Guile, Matthew W.; Bienstock, Jessica L.; Fox, Harold E.; Wallach, Edward E. The Johns Hopkins manual of gynecology and obstetrics (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 382–395. ISBN 978-1-60547-433-5. 
  5. World Health Organization Department of Reproductive Health and Research (2011). Family planning: A global handbook for providers: Evidence-based guidance developed through worldwide collaboration (Rev. and Updated ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: WHO and Center for Communication Programs. ISBN 978-0-9788563-7-3. 
  6. Taliaferro, L. A.; Sieving, R.; Brady, S. S.; Bearinger, L. H. (2011). "We have the evidence to enhance adolescent sexual and reproductive health--do we have the will?". Adolescent medicine: state of the art reviews 22 (3): 521–543, xii. PMID 22423463. 
  7. Chin, H. B.; Sipe, T. A.; Elder, R.; Mercer, S. L.; Chattopadhyay, S. K.; Jacob, V.; Wethington, H. R.; Kirby, D. et al. (2012). "The Effectiveness of Group-Based Comprehensive Risk-Reduction and Abstinence Education Interventions to Prevent or Reduce the Risk of Adolescent Pregnancy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Sexually Transmitted Infections". American Journal of Preventive Medicine 42 (3): 272–294. PMID 22341164. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2011.11.006. 
  8. Gizzo, S; Fanelli, T; Di Gangi, S; Saccardi, C; Patrelli, TS; Zambon, A; Omar, A; D'Antona, D et al. (October 2012). "Nowadays which emergency contraception? Comparison between past and present: latest news in terms of clinical efficacy, side effects and contraindications.". Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology 28 (10): 758–63. PMID 22390259. doi:10.3109/09513590.2012.662546. 
  9. DiCenso A, Guyatt G, Willan A, Griffith L (June 2002). "Interventions to reduce unintended pregnancies among adolescents: systematic review of randomised controlled trials". BMJ 324 (7351): 1426. PMC 115855. PMID 12065267. doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7351.1426. 
  10. Duffy, K.; Lynch, D. A.; Santinelli, J. (2008). "Government Support for Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Education". Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 84 (6): 746–748. PMID 18923389. doi:10.1038/clpt.2008.188. 
  11. Black, A. Y.; Fleming, N. A.; Rome, E. S. (2012). "Pregnancy in adolescents". Adolescent medicine: state of the art reviews 23 (1): 123–138, xi. PMID 22764559. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Rowan, S. P.; Someshwar, J.; Murray, P. (2012). "Contraception for primary care providers". Adolescent medicine: state of the art reviews 23 (1): 95–110, x–xi. PMID 22764557. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 World Health Organization Department of Reproductive Health and Research (2011). Family planning: A global handbook for providers: Evidence-based guidance developed through worldwide collaboration (Rev. and Updated ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: WHO and Center for Communication Programs. pp. 260–300. ISBN 978-0-9788563-7-3. 
  14. "Costs and Benefits of Contraceptive Services: Estimates for 2012" (pdf). United Nations Population Fund. June 2012. p. 1. 
  15. Carr, B.; Gates, M. F.; Mitchell, A.; Shah, R. (2012). "Giving women the power to plan their families". The Lancet 380 (9837): 80–82. PMID 22784540. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60905-2. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Cleland, J; Conde-Agudelo, A; Peterson, H; Ross, J; Tsui, A (Jul 14, 2012). "Contraception and health.". Lancet 380 (9837): 149–56. PMID 22784533. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60609-6. 
  17. Ahmed, S.; Li, Q.; Liu, L.; Tsui, A. O. (2012). "Maternal deaths averted by contraceptive use: An analysis of 172 countries". The Lancet 380 (9837): 111–125. PMID 22784531. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60478-4. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 Canning, D.; Schultz, T. P. (2012). "The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning". The Lancet 380 (9837): 165–171. PMID 22784535. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60827-7. 
  19. Van Braeckel, D.; Temmerman, M.; Roelens, K.; Degomme, O. (2012). "Slowing population growth for wellbeing and development". The Lancet 380 (9837): 84–85. PMID 22784542. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60902-7.